Announce: Raku Perl 6 'Diwali' 6.d Language Specification Release

This announcement is available in a form of a colourful PDF brochure:


On behalf of the development team, it brings me great pleasure to
announce the Diwali release of the Official Specification of
the Raku Perl 6 programming language.

The 6.d specification is available as a `6.d` git tag in the repository
at and any future errata will be
published in the `6.d-errata` branch.

Note: The compiler releases that use 6.d language by
default will follow their standard release schedules.

If you have any questions about this or future language releases,
you can inquire at our Help Chat at or
on our mailing list at <>

## Language Name Alias Decision: "Raku"

Larry Wall has created a second name for the language, an alias or
a "stage name" if you will. That name is "Raku". It can be used
interchangeably with the original "Perl 6" name or even be combined with it
to form "Raku Perl 6". Pick the one that works the best for you and
use it consistently.

## Authors

The following people contributed to this version of the language,
including making documentation updates and contributing work to known
open‑source compiler implementations. The list is ordered alphabetically.

If you believe your name has been erroneously omited, please contact us
(, and we'll update the primary copy of this list.

0racle, A. Sinan Unur, ab5tract, Adrian White, Ahmad M. Zawawi,  
Alberto Luaces,
Aleks-Daniel Jakimenko‐Aleksejev, Alex Chen, Alex Elsayed, Alex Schroeder,
Alex Wander, Alexander, Alexey Melezhik, Alexis, Alexius Korzinek, allan,
Altai‐man, Amir Aharoni, andreoss, Andrew Ruder, Andrew Shitov, Andy  
Anthony Parsons, Antonio, Antonio Quinonez, antoniogamiz, Armand Halbert,
Arne Skjærholt, Athos Ribeiro, Bahtiar `kalkin-` Gadimov, Bart Wiegmans,
Bartosz Janus, bazzaar, Ben Davies, benji, Benny Siegert, Bill Barry,  
Brad Gilbert, Breno G. de Oliveira, Brent Laabs, brian d foy, Brian Duggan,
Brian Gernhardt, Brian S. Julin, Brock Wilcox, Bruce Gray, bspecht, Cale,
Carl Mäsak, CC, Cecilia, cfa, Christian Bartolomäus, Christian Sánchez,
Christian Walde, Christopher Bottoms, chromatic, Claudio Ramirez,  
Clifton Wood,
Coleoid, COMBORICO, coypoop, cpin, Cuon  Manh Le, Curt  Tilmes, cygx,
Dabrien 'Dabe' Murphy, Dagfinn Ilmari Mannsåker, Dale Evans, Dan Book,
Dan Kogai, Dan Miller, Dan Zwell, Daniel Dehennin, Daniel Green, Daniel Mita,
Daniel Perrett, dariusantia, Dave Olszewski, Dave Rolsky, David Brunton,
David H. Adler, David M. Cawthon, David Warring, dmaestro, Dmitri  
Dominique Dumont, Donald Hunter, Douglas Jenkins, Douglas L. Schrag,
Douglas Schrag, dugword, eater, Eckhart Arnold, Eike Frost, Elena Merelo,
Elise, Elizabeth Mattijsen, Emeric54, Eric de Hont, Fernando Correa de  
Fernando Santagata, fireartist, flussence, Francis Grizzly Smit,
Francois Perrad, francois@<redacted>, Fritz Zaucker, Fyodor  Sizov,  
Gabor Szabo,
Garrett Goebel, Geoffrey Broadwell, gerd, Gerd Pokorra, gotoexit, Greg Donald,
Harrison Chienjo, holli-holzer, ianmcb, ijneb, ilyash-b, Innokenty Shniperson,
Itsuki Toyota, İsmail Arılık, Jack Kuan, Jake Russo, James ( Jeremy ) Carman,
Jan-Olof Hendig, Jared Miller, Jarkko Haapalainen, Jason Cole, Jeff Linahan,
Jeffrey Goff, Jeremy Studer, Jim Davis, Jimmy Zhuo, jjatria, Joachim  
Joel, Joelle Maslak, John Gabriele, John Harrison, John Spurr, Jonas Kramer,
Jonathan Beebe, Jonathan Scott Duff, Jonathan Stowe, Jonathan Worthington,
Josh Soref, José Albert Cruz Almaguer, Juan Julián Merelo Guervós,
Juerd Waalboer, Julien Simonet, Justin DeVuyst, karl yerkes, kjpye,
KlappeZuAffeTot, Kris Shannon, Lance Wicks, Larry Wall, LE Manh Cuong, lefth,
LemonBoy, Leon Timmermans, Lichtkind, LLFourn, Lloyd Fournier,
Luca Ferrari, Lucas Buchala, Luis Balderas Ruiz, Luis F.  Uceta,
M, M. Faiz Zakwan Zamzuri, Maik Hentsche, Marc Chantreux, Marcel Timmerman,
Mario, Mark Montague, Mark Rushing, Martin Barth, Martin Dørum Nygaard,
Martin Ryan, Mathieu Gagnon, Matt Oates, Matthew Wilson, Matthias  
Bloch, mendel,
Michael D. Stemle, Jr, Michal Jurosz, Mint, Moray, MorayJ, Moritz Lenz, mryan,
Nacho Mas, Nadim Khemir, Naoum Hankache, Nat, Neil Shadrach, Nelo Onyiah,
neuron, Nic, Nic Q, Nick Logan, Norbert Buchmueller, Nova Patch, nsvedberg,
Nuno 'smash' Carvalho, okaoka, Oleksii Varianyk, Panu Ervamaa, parabolize,
Patrick R. Michaud, Patrick Böker, Patrick Spek, Paul Cochrane, Paul Smith,
Paula, Paweł Murias, Pepe Schwarz, Peter Stuifzand,
Philippe Bruhat (BooK), Piers Cawley, Prakash Kailasa,
Przemysław Wesołek, Páll Haraldsson, Rafael Schipiura, raiph,
Randy  Lauen, raydiak, Reini Urban, Reko98, ribbon-otter, Richard Hainsworth,
Rob Hoelz, Robert Lemmen, Robert Newbould, Ronald Schmidt, ryn1x,
Salvador Ortiz, Salve J. Nilsen, Sam Morrison, Sam S, Samantha McVey, sarna,
seatek, Shlomi Fish, Siavash Askari Nasr, Simon Proctor, Simon Ruderich,
Skarsnik, smls, Stefan Fischer, Stefan Seifert, Sterling Hanenkamp,
Steve Bertrand, Steve Mynott, Stéphane Payrard, Sylvain Colinet, sylvarant,
Tadeusz “tadzik” Sośnierz, thebooort, Thor Michael Støre,
threadless-screw, thundergnat, Tim Smith, Timo Paulssen, Tobias Boege,
Tobias Leich, Tom Browder, tomboy64, Tommy Stanton, Trey Harris,
Tzu-Li "tison" Chen, Valentin Anger, ven, Viacheslav Lotsmanov,
vinc17fr, Vladimir Marek, Vynce Montgomery, VZ, Wenzel P. P. Peppmeyer,
Will "Coke" Coleda, wukgdu, Zak B. Elep, Zoffix Znet, ZzZombo, 唐鳳, 陈梓立

## Changelog

This document lists changes in Perl 6.d (Diwali) language
from Perl 6.c (Christmas) version. A particular implementation of the language
may contain additional changes; please consult with the changelog for your

At the same time, a particular implementation may have had certain features
already implemented during the 6.c version period. This ChangeLog concerns
itself with new features added to the specification on a language  
level and not
the status of their implementation in a particular compiler.

### Scope / Target Audience

This ChangeLog is targeted towards language users, to help with  
preparation to use
compilers supporting latest language version. Thus, it does not  
contain every minute
change to the specification that occurred. Implementations wishing to  
ensure full
compliance with the new version of the language specification should  
execute the
test suite available at and examine  
any failing tests.

There are new features that did not exist in 6.c language. For full  
details about them,
please consult with the language documentation on
Items in *Version-Controlled Changes* section are protected by version  
pragma and older
behaviours can be obtained by explicitly using use v6.c to request an  
older language
version. All other changes do not conflict with the 6.c language  
version and implementations
may choose to make them available even when an earlier language  
version is requested.

#### Version-Controlled Changes

- **[6.d]** `&await` no longer blocks *a thread* while waiting
- **[6.d]** `whenever` not in lexical scope of `react` throws
- **[6.d]** `$*ARGFILES` inside `sub MAIN` is always fed by `$*IN`
- **[6.d]** Constructs (literally) `$()`, `@()`, and `%()` are no  
longer magical
- **[6.d]** variables with `:D`/`:U` type constraints default to type  
object of
     the constrained type (e.g. so you could use `.new` with them)
- **[6.d]** `start` blocks in sink context attach exception handler
- **[6.d]** Routines must use `return-rw` to return a `Proxy`, even if
     routine is marked as `is raw` or `is rw`
- **[6.d]** Native `num` types default to `0e0` instead of `NaN`
- **[6.d]** On subroutine names, the colonpair with key `sym` (e.g.  
     is reserved, in anticipation of possible future use.

#### Deprecations

These methods are deprecated in 6.d language and will be removed in 6.e.
Implementations may choose to emit deprecation warnings or to offer these
methods for a longer period than 6.e release.

- The use of `'-'` (single hyphen) as a special path to `&open` to mean the
     special handles (use `IO::Special` objects instead)
- `IO::Handle.slurp-rest` (use `.slurp` instead)
- `Any.flatmap` (use combination of `.flat` and `.map` methods instead)
- `Cool.path` (use `.IO` instead)
- `Pair.freeze` (use `` with decontainerized arguments instead)
- `Str.subst-mutate` (use `Str.subst` with `.=` method call assign  
metaop instead)
- `Rational.norm` (`Rational` types are required to be normalized on  
creation now)
- `IO::Path.child` (use `.add` instead)
- `&undefine` (assign `Empty`/`Nil` directly, instead)
- `:count` argument on `&lines`/`Str.lines` routines
     (use `.elems` call on returned `Seq` instead)
- `&is_approx` in Test.pm6 (use the very similar behaviour of  
`&is-approx` instead)

#### New Behaviors

- Improved custom handling of `sub MAIN` via new definable `&RUN-MAIN`,
- `QuantHash`es/`Map` in `%` variables and `List` in `@` variables
     can be declared with `is` trait (e.g. `my %h is Set`)
- New `<ww>` regex rule: match within word only
- Loops can produce a list of values from the values of last statements
- `next`/`last` in a loop that collects its last statement values
     return `Empty` for the iterations they run on
- `.perl` can be called on consumed `Seq`s, multi-dimensional arrays,
     `Date`, and `CallFrame`
- `.gist` can be called on `Attribute`
- Numerous improvements to auto-generated `USAGE` message
- `is hidden-from-USAGE` trait to hide `sub MAIN` candidates from
     auto-generated `USAGE` message
- `Parameter.perl` includes introspectable defaults
- `%*ENV` values are allomorphic
- Trying to use variables `$;`, `$,`, `$.`, `$\`, `$(`, `$)`,
     `$<`, `$>`, `$/`, `$\`, `$[`, `$-`, `$+`, and `$@`
     throws `X::Syntax::Perl5Var`
- Default `Hash.of` returns a `Str(Any)` coercer type object
- Non-ASCII numerics can be used in `:42foo` colonpair shortcut
- `StrDistance` stringifies to its `.after` string
- More well-defined formatting of Pod tables
- `Enumeration.enums` returns a `Map`
- `.Range` on various integer types returns the range of values they support
- `min`/`max` routines also work on `Hash`es
- `Signature` literals can contain string/numeric literals as
     well as the invocant marker
- `List.invert` maps via a required `Pair` binding, resulting in
     potential type check failures
- `:exists` can be used with multi-dimensional associative subscripts
- Dynamically created lists can be used to define an enum
- Junctions can be used as a matcher in `.first`
- Native attributes can be used as bind targets in parameters
- `Proc` can work with `IO::Pipe`s from other `Proc`s
- Typed arrays can be created with both `my SomeType @array`
     and `my @array of SomeType`
- Items with negative weights are removed when coercing
     a `Mixy` to `Setty`/`Baggy`
- `:nth` adverb on `m//` accepts a `Junction` as argument
- `CX::Warn` and `CX::Done` can be caught inside `CONTROL` phaser
- `next` can be used in `whenever`
- `require`'d symbols no longer transitively exposed
- Multi-dimensional access via `{…}`, similar to how it works with `[…]`
- Any open handles at `END` time get automatically closed
- On a cached `Seq`, the cached list is used when `&infix:<eqv>`, `.Slip`,
     `.join`, `.List`, `.list`, `.eager`, `.Array` and `.is-lazy` are called
- `IO::Handle.encoding` takes `Nil` to indicate switch to binary mode
- `is default` trait works with attributes
- Parameters with `is rw` trait are considered narrower in multi dispatch
     than those without it
- `.gist` of `Array`, `Blob`, and `Map` gets trimmed to 100 elements
- New `for` statement modifiers `hyper for`, `race for`, and `lazy for`
- `for` loop automatically serializes `RaceSeq`/`HyperSeq`; use new `for`
     statement modifiers `hyper for`/`race for` to avoid
- `&infix:<does>` can be used with non-composable instances on RHS
- Numeric comparators can be used with `DateTime` objects
- `Pod` preserves the type of whitespace
- Defined semantics for `@`-, `%`- and `&`-sigilled `constant`s

#### Math

- `Rational`s are always reduced on creation and remain
     immutable throughout their life
- `-Inf`, `Inf`, and `NaN` can be round-tripped through a `Rational` type
     by being represented as values `<-1/0>`, `<1/0>`, and `<0/0`>
     respectively. Zero-denominator `Rational`s are normalized to
     one of those three values
- Calling `.Int` on ±`Inf` and `NaN` throws
- Improved IEEE 754-2008 compliance in `Num` operators and math functions
- Negative zero `Num` (`-0e0`) gets correctly
     handled by all routines and syntactical constructs
- Stringification of `Num` type is required to be roundtrippable
     to the original `Num`
- Defined `Complex` exponentiation involving zeros
- Negative powers in `.expmod` are valid

#### Sets, Bags, Mixes (aka QuantHashes) and set operators

- Set operators can be used on any object, which will be coerced when needed
   - So no pre-coercion is needed or wanted
   - Set operators are at liberty to not create any QuantHash if they can
     perform the desired functionality without them
- Set operations on different types of QuantHashes will coerce to the
     most liberal form (Set -> Bag -> Mix)
- The set_precedes family of set operators ( `(<+)`, `≼`, `(>+)`, `≽`) has
     been removed
   - Used to be a Baggy form of the subset operator
   - QuantHashes are upgraded to their most liberal form,
     so `(<=)`, `⊆`, `(>=)`, `⊇` do the right thing
- `.classify-list` method is available on `Baggy` types
- `.categorize-list` method is available on `Baggy` types
- `.invert` method is available on core `QuantHash` types
- `.antipairs` method can be used on `QuantHash` types
- `QuantHash` types have `.new-from-pairs` and methods to convert one
     `QuantHash` type to another (e.g. `.Bag` method on `Set` type)
- `.hash` on `QuantHash` types does stringify keys

#### New Parameters and Arguments

- `` accepts a `:&formatter`
- `.first` can take `:kv`
- `unique` and `.repeated` can take `:&as` and `:&with`
- `&plan` in Test.pm6 can take `:skip-all`
- `&run`/`&shell` can take `:merge`
- `&note` can be called with no arguments
- `open` accepts `:$out-buffer`
- `IO::Path.resolve` can take `:completely`
- `IO::Path.parent` can take an `Int` indicating parent level
- `` slurps positional arguments
- `Signature.ACCEPTS` accepts non-`Signature`/`Capture` arguments
- `&EVAL` can take a `Blob`
- `Promise.keep`/`.break` can be called with no arguments
- `.sum` on native arrays can take `:wrap`
- `is required` trait can now take an argument indicating reason
- `IO::Socket::Async.listen` can bind to port `0` to ask OS for a free port
- `.encode` can take `:translate-nl`

#### New Routines and Operators

- New `atomicint` Unicode operators and ASCII alternatives that guarantee
     thread-safe, atomic operation:
     `&infix:<⚛=>`/`&atomic-assign`, `&prefix:<⚛>`/`&atomic-fetch`,
     `&prefix:<++⚛>`/`&atomic-inc-fetch`, `&postfix:<⚛++>`/`&atomic-fetch-inc`,
     `&prefix:<--⚛>`/`&atomic-dec-fetch`, `&postfix:<⚛-->`/`&atomic-fetch-dec`,
     and `&infix:<⚛+=>`/`&atomic-fetch-add`
- `&cas`: atomic compare and swap
- The `≤`, `≥`, and `≠` operators are Unicode operator
     alternatives to `<=`, `>=`, and `!=` respectively
- `&infix:<unicmp>`/`&infix:<coll>`: alternative behavior of `&infix:<cmp>`
- `TR///`: non-mutating version of `tr///`
- `submethod TWEAK`: similar to `BUILD`, except it's compatible with  
attribute defaults
- `&duckmap`: apply `&callable` on each element that behaves in such a way
     that `&callable` can be applied
- `&deepmap`: apply `&callable` on each element, descending into `Iterable`s
- `&take-rw`: like `&take` but with a writable container
- `&indir`: execute code in a given `$*CWD`
- `&spurt`: see `IO::Path.spurt`
- `&prompt`: prompt user for input
- `uniprops`: multi-character version of `uniprop`
- `symlink`: create a file symlink
- `link`: create a file hardlink
- `.hyper`/`.race`: process a list of values in parallel
- `Seq.from-loop`: generate a `Seq` from a `Callable`
- `Str.uniparse`: parse one or more Unicode character names into
     the actual characters
- `Str.parse-base`: inverse of `Int.base` operation
- `IO::Path` provides `.ACCEPTS`, `.SPEC`, `.CWD`, `.Numeric`, `.add`,
     `.extension`, `.mode` and numerious file tests, `.parts`,
     `.sibling`, and `.spurt`
- `IO::Handle` provides `.READ`, `.WRITE`, `.EOF`, `.DESTROY`,
     `.readchars`, `.flush`, `.lock`, `.unlock`, `.out-buffer`, `.tell`,
     `.say`, `.slurp`, `.seek`, `.printf`, `.print-nl`, and `.watch`
- `IO::Pipe` provides `.proc`
- `Iterator` provides `.skip-one`, `.skip-at-least`,
     and `.skip-at-least-pull-one`
- `Mu.emit`: method form of `&emit`
- `&fails-like` in Test.pm6 module: allows testing for Failures
- `&bail-out` in Test.pm6 module: exit out of failing test suite
- `&is-approx` in Test.pm6 module: test a number is approximately like another
- `Buf` has `.allocate`, `.reallocate`, `.append`, `.push`, `.pop`,
     `.splice`, `.subbuf-rw`, `.prepend`, and `.unshift` methods
- `Range` supports `.rand`
- `Backtrace` has methods `.map`, `.flat`, `.concise`, and `.summary`
- `.classify-list` method is available on `Hash` types
- `.categorize-list` method is available on `Hash` types
- `Code.of`: returns the return type constraint
- `Code.line`/`.file`: returns the line/file of definition
- `Proc::Async` provides `.Supply`, `.ready`, `.pid`, `.bind-stdin`,
     `.bind-stdout`, and `.bind-stderr`
- `Proc.command`/`Proc::Async.command`: the command we're executing
- `Proc` provides `.signal`, `.pid`, and `.encoding`
- `Complex` provides `.cis`, `.reals`, `.ceiling`, `.floor`, `.round`,
     `.truncate`, and `.abs` methods and can be compared with `<=>` (as
     long as the imaginary part is negligible)
- `DateTime` provides `.offset-in-hours`, `.hh-mm-ss`, and `.Date`
- `DateTime` can be compared with other `DateTime` objects using `<=>`  
- `Date` provides `.DateTime` method
- `&infix:<+>`/`&infix:<->` can be called with `Duration`, `DateTime`,
     and `Real` types
- `Enumeration` provides `.Int`, `.pred`, `.succ`, `.kv`, and `.pair`
- `.Date` can be called on an `Instant`
- Junctions can be created using `` call
- `List` type has `.to` and `.from` methods
- `Map` type provides `Int` method, returning the number of pairs
- `Any.skip`: skip values in a list
- `Any.batch`: more basic cousin of `.rotor`
- `Mu.iterator`: produce an `Iterator` for values in a list
- `IO::Spec::*` types provide `.tmpdir`, `.extension`, and `.path`
- `Pair` provides `.ACCEPTS`, `.Pair`, and `.invert`
- `.Capture` method is well-defined for all core types
- Defined semantics of `.ACCEPTS` on allomorphs
- `Failure.self` explodes unhandled `Failure`s
- ``: are we running in the initial thread?
- `Match` provides `.Int` and `.actions`
- `IO::Socket::Async` provides `.socket-port` and `.peer-port`
- `Promise` provides alternative constructors `.kept` and `.broken`
- `WhateverCode` provides `.assuming`
- `WhateverCode` and `Block` provide `.cando`
- `.:<…>` syntax for calling prefix operators as postfixes
- `$*KERNEL` provides `.hostname`
- `Nil` has `.FALLBACK` special method defined to return `Nil`

#### New Types

- `atomicint`: a native `int` sized to be usable with new atomic operators
- `Lock::Async`: a non-blocking mechanism for mutual exclusion
- `Encoding::Registry`:  manage available encodings
- `Encoding::Encoder`: encoder for a specific encoding
- `Encoding::Decoder`: decoder for a specific encoding
- `IO::CatHandle`: use multiple read-only `IO::Handle`s as if they were one
- Native `str` arrays
- `Supplier::Preserving`: cached live `Supply` factory
- `Semaphore`: control access to shared resources by multiple threads
- `IO::Special`: a path to special I/O device (e.g. `STDOUT`)
- `Exceptions::JSON` an implementation of custom exceptions handler
     (can be used with `PERL6_EXCEPTIONS_HANDLER` env var)
- `SeekType` enum: values for use in ``

#### New Variables

- `$*USAGE`: available inside `MAIN` subs and contains the auto-generated
   USAGE message
- `%*SUB-MAIN-OPTS`: settings for behaviour of `sub MAIN`
     - `%*SUB-MAIN-OPTS<named-anywhere>` allow named arguments to be
         placed at any position on the command line
- `$*COLLATION`: configures the four Unicode collation levels
- `$*INIT-INSTANT`: an `Instant` representing program startup time
- `$*HOME`: user's home directory, if one exists
- `&*chdir`: a `Callable` containing a variant of `IO::Path.chdir` that
     also sets process's current directory
- `PERL6_TEST_DIE_ON_FAIL` environmental variable: stop test
     suite on first failure
- `PERL6_EXCEPTIONS_HANDLER` environmental variable: specify custom
     exceptions handler class

#### Clarifications of Edge Case/Coercion Behaviour

- `UInt` smartmatches `True` with `Int` type object
- `sink` statement prefix explodes `Failure`s
- Defined behaviour of `permutations`/`combinations` on 1- and 0-item
     lists and negative and non-Int arguments
- `&val`, `Str.Numeric`, and other `Str` numeric conversion methods
     `fail` when trying to convert Unicode `No` character
     group or synthetic numerics
- Synthetic numerics cannot be used in `:42foo` colonpair shortcut
- An `Enumeration` can now be used as a array shape specifier
- Numeric conversion of `Str` containing nothing but whitespace  
returns `0` now
- `samemark` with empty pattern argument simply returns the invocant
- `.polymod` can be used with `lazy` but finite lists of divisors
- `.[*-0]` index is defined
- Negative gaps in `.rotor` that are larger than the sublist throw
- Non-`Int` arguments to `.rotor` get coerced to `Int`
- `.lines` is defined when reading `/proc` files
- Defined behaviour of Thai numerals in postfix/prefix `++`/`--` on strings
- `map` inside sunk `for` is treated as sunk
- Sunk `for` loop sinks value of last statement's method call
- `.Int` on `Bool` objects returns an `Int` object
- `splice` can be used to extend an array
- `classify` works with `Junction`s
- `.pairup` on a type object returns an empty `Seq`
- `.pairup` always returns a `Seq`
- Synthetic codepoints are rejected from `Date`/`DateTime` constructors
- `⸨`/`⸩` pair can now be used as matching characters in quoting constructs
- `.flat` on an `Array` type object simply returns that type object
- Mixed-level `classify` on `Hash`es throws
- `Junction`s can be used to specify multiple keys to `Hash`es
- The `Callable` given to `.classify-list` is now guaranteed to be
     executed only once per each item
- `:delete` on associative lookup on `Hash` type object returns `Nil`
- `&is-deeply` from Test.pm6 automatically `.cache`s `Seq`s given
     as arguments and uses the returned `List`s for testing
- `` gives `<0+0i>`
- `` is now guarantied to construct a new `Int` (rather than, say,
        re-use one from a constants cache)
- 1-arg versions of `&infix:<=:=>` and `&infix:<eqv>` are defined
- `Nil` type now throws if directly or indirectly calling
     `.BIND-POS`, `.BIND-KEY`, `.ASSIGN-POS`, `.ASSIGN-KEY`, `.STORE`, `.push`,
     `.append`, `.unshift`, `.prepend`
- `Nil.ord` returns an empty `Seq`
- `Nil.chrs` returns a `"\0"`
- `` coercers argument to `Num`
- `infix:<Z>()` returns an empty `Seq`
- `.comb` always returns a `Seq`
- Reduce with `&infix:<+>` with one item simply returns that item
- `()[0]` returns `Nil`
- Regex smartmatching is allowed on (possibly-infinite) `Seq`
- Defined smartmatching with `Range` objects
- `Set` converted to a `Mix`/`Bag` no longer has `Bool` weights
- `gcd` is defined when one or more operands are `0`
- `Junction`s autothread in `defined` routine
- `sum` can handle lists with `Junctions` in them
- `Grammar.parse` lets top `regex` backtrack
- The `U+2212 MINUS SIGN [Sm] (−)` is now supported by more constructs,
     such as `Str.Numeric` and `&val`
- Arity-1 `&infix:<~>` works with `Blob`s
- All `Numeric` literals are supported as value literals in signature
- `\b` and `\B` in regexes throw `X::Obsolete`
- `True` and `False` as value literals in signatures warn
- Return type of `.sort` and `IO::Spec::Unix.path` is always `Seq`
- Out-of-range `.AT-POS` on `Range` objects returns `Nil`
- `Pair.AT-KEY` for non-existent key returns `Nil`
- All `Cool` types provide `.Rat`/`.FatRat` coercers
- `IO::Path` filetests do not cache results of earlier test executions
- `Seq` eqv `List` as `False` based on type mismatch alone
- On arrays, `Hash`es, and `QuantHash`es, values
     from `.kv`, `.values`, and `.pairs` sequences are writable
- `&infix:<∘>`/`&infix:<o>` keep LHF's `.of` and RHS's `.arity` and `.count`
- Refined accepted arguments in regex operator adverbs (e.g. `:in(…)`)
- Refined accepted combinations of arguments in ``
- `IO::Path.Str` does not include the value of `.CWD` attribute
- `IO::Path` type rejects paths with the `nul` byte (`"\0"`) in them
- `IO::Pipe`'s `.path`/`.IO` return an `IO::Path` type object
- `IO::Path`'s `.copy`/`.move` `fail` if destination and original are the same
- `dir`-created `IO::Path`s' absoluteness is controlled by the invocant
- More-defined edge-case behaviour, `Callable` handling, `.defined` calling,
     and chaining of `&infix:<andthen>`, `&infix:<orelse>`,
     and `&infix:<notandthen>` operators
- Zen slicing of `Seq`s does *not* cache them
- `List.Capture` stringifies keys of any contained `Pair` objects
- `&fail` with handled `Failure` argument marks it as unhandled
- `use lib` accepts `IO::Path` objects
- Anchors `^`, `^^`, `$`, and `$$` are valid in lookarounds
- `Grammar.made` supports type objects
- `.isa` supports `subset` type objects
- `:delete` can be used on lazy arrays
- `&infix:<eqv>` can work with certain cases of lazy arguments
- Dynamic lookup (`::(…)`) is restricted regex syntax and
     requires `use MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL` clearance
- Defined `.Slip` and `.List` on arrays with holes
- ``/`.at` and `Supply.interval` work with zero and negative values
- `Supply.interval` minimum value is `0.001`; lower values are
     treated as `0.001` and emit warnings
- `Supply` provides `.Seq`, `.list`, and `.zip`
- Can bind to native type attributes in build methods
- `WhateverCode` propagates `use fatal`
- `say`, `note`, `put`, `print`, and `printf` routines autothread `Junction`s
- `IO::Handle.eof` value changes accordingly when `.seek`ing past end and back
- Defined `.succ`, `.pred`, and `.Bool` on allomorphs
- Defined `.Bridge` on core `Numeric`s
- Defined `.Numeric`/`.Real` on type objects of core `Numeric`s
- Defined `Rational.Bool` with respect to zero-denominator rationals
- `say`/`note` guaranteed to call `.gist` on subclasses of `Str`
- Defined `Junction.Str` returns a `Junction`
- Defined `Junction.gist`/`.perl` return a `Str`
- `Map`/`Hash`'s `.list`/`.cache` return a `List`
- Defined `.round`'s return type
- Defined `Enumeration:D` not does `.ACCEPT` an `Enumeration:U`

#### Miscellaneous

- The `IO::ArgFiles` type is just an empty subclass of `IO::CatHandle`
- Constraints on constants
     - Constraints are fully enforced
     - Attempting to use parametarized type constraints on constants
         (i.e. using `my Foo constant @int`) throws  
`X::ParametricConstant` exception
- `Pod` `=defn` (definition list) directive is available
- `Pod` provides `:numbered` config key
- `.^ver`, `.^auth`, and `.^name` metamethods are available on `module`
     and are absent on a `package`, by design
- Fancy quotes (`’…’`, `“…”`, `「…」`, and variants) are supported in `qww<…>`
- `&infix:< >` supports lookup of autogenerated `Callables` (e.g.  
- Using a named `anon` sub no longer produces redeclaration warnings
- Extended spec of `::?MODULE`/`$?MODULE` variable
- `sub MAIN` can accept an `Enumeration` type constraint and `where`
     clause on arguments
- Type smiley constraints can be used on subsets
- `start` blocks and thunks get fresh `$/` and `$!`
- `R` meta operator used with list-associative operators is defined
- Type coerces can be used in signature return type constraints
- `&infix:<x>`/`&infix:<x>` throw with `-Inf`/`NaN` repeat arguments
- Literal constructs `put` and `put for` throw, requiring use of parentheses
- Expanded specification coverage of Unicode routines and features -  
Upgraded coverage to Unicode version 11
- `$.` method call syntax shorthand works with meta-methods

Happy Diwali!
11/5/2018 3:05:26 AM
perl.perl6.compiler 1228 articles. 0 followers. Follow

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> This announcement is available in a form of a colourful PDF brochure:

A massive applause for this, even though the announcement was so
inconspicuous that I had actually reverted to the inbox to collect the
next message before a little voice said "Hmm, what was that about?".
Nicely designed, and the "creatives" haven't gone berserk with the

A "Marketing" subsection is a great idea.
11/5/2018 12:47:47 PM